Living cells go through a series of stages known as the cell cycle. The cells grow, copy their chromosomes, and then divide to form new cells.
Mitosis is used to produce daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cells. The cell copies – or ‘replicates’ – its chromosomes, and then splits the copied chromosomes equally to make sure that each daughter cell has a full set. The process of mitosis involves a number of different stages.
Interphase is an important stage in the cell cyle. Changes that occur during interphase prepare a cell for division. Before a cell can divide, it duplicates its DNA exactly. Correct copying of the DNA is very important. It ensures that, after cell division, each new cell gets a complete set of DNA. Interphase is also considered to be the ‘living’ phase of the cell, in which the cell obtains nutrients, grows, reads its DNA, and conducts other “normal” cell functions.
Interphase is split into 3 stages, G1, S, and G2. In G1, the cell gets bigger in preparation for cell division. Phase S is probably the most important since that is when DNA replicates, if you don’t have two copies of the genome (all the genetic info in DNA) , the cell can’t divide. The last phase, G2, is when the cell keeps increasing in mass and making proteins.
Nucleice acids are essential for all known forms of life. Nucleic acids which include DNA and RNA are made from monomers know as nucleotides.
DNA is found entirely in the nucleus (apoart from a small amount in the mitochondria located in the cytoplasm) and is structured in a double stranded helix formed by nucleotide pairing. It makes up chromosones – the hereditary units that control all cellular activities; divided into genes that carry the nucleotide codes for the manufacture of proteins.
RNA is found almost entirely in the cytoplasm and is structured in a single strand. RNA manufacture proteins according to the codes carried in the DNA. There are three main types: messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA.
In protein synthesis messenger RNA travels to the ribsomes in the cytoplasm. The information in the mRNA codes for the building of proteins from amino acids. Transfer RNA molecules bring amino acids to the ribosomes to build each protein.
Nutrients such as sugars, fats, and proteins are rich sources of energy for animal cells because much of the energy used to form these molecules is literally stored within the chemical bonds that hold them together.
Animal cells do not use the energy from oxidation reactions as soon as it is released. Instead, they convert it into small, energy-rich molecules such as ATP.
The ATP is used for many cell functions including transport work moving substances across cell membranes. It is also used for mechanical work, supplying the energy needed for muscle contraction. It supplies energy not only to heart muscle (for blood circulation) and skeletal muscle (such as for gross body movement), but also to the chromosomes and flagella to enable them to carry out their many functions. A major role of ATP is in chemical work, supplying the needed energy to synthesize the multi-thousands of types of macromolecules that the cell needs to exist.
The cell membrane is selectively permeable; it regulates what passes from one side to the other. A selectively permeable membrane will allow water to flow freely while limiting the passage of molecules, especially large molecules or those with a charge. A plasma membrane provides some protection to the insides of cells, but its main life-giving function is to control the passage of substances into and out of cells.
The mitochondira within the cell membrane convert energy from nutrients into ATP which is the useable energy form.
Organelles within the cytoplasm help eliminate waste, such as lysosomes, which break down bacteria and other waste products.
There are numerous types of membrane transport such as Diffusion. Simple diffusion through the plamsa membrane is mostly limited to lipid-soluble substances that can dissolve into the membrane such as gases and liquids. Filtration is another form of important membrane transport which is the passage of water and dissolved materials through a membrane as a result of a mechanical force on one side. For example, it occurs in the kidneys as materials are filtered out of the blood in the first step of urine formation.
What Are Cancer Cells?
Cancer cells are cells that grow and divide at an unregulated, quickened pace. Although cancer cells can be quite common in a person they are only malignant when the other cells (particularly natural killer cells) fail to recognize and/or destroy them.
Cancer cells are different to normal cells in several ways:
What Are Stem Cells?
Stem cells are the body’s raw materials — cells from which all other cells with specialised functions are generated. Under the right conditions in the body or a laboratory, stem cells divide to form more cells called daughter cells.
These daughter cells either become new stem cells (self-renewal) or become specialized cells (differentiation) with a more specific function, such as blood cells, brain cells, heart muscle or bone. No other cell in the body has the natural ability to generate new cell types.
Where Do Stem Cells Come From?
There are several sources of stem stells including:
How Stem Cells Can Be Used?
Stem cells can be guided into becoming specific cells that can be used to regenerate and repair diseased or damaged tissues in people.
People who might benefit from stem cell therapies include those with spinal cord injuries, type 1 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, stroke, burns, cancer and osteoarthritis.
Stem cells may have the potential to be grown to become new tissue for use in transplant and regenerative medicine. Researchers continue to advance the knowledge on stem cells and their applications in transplant and regenerative medicine.
Billed as the ‘The UK’s first Valentines scare attraction’, L’a Mortis, located at the award winning Scare Kingdom scream park is the latest chapter of the atmosFEAR scare attraction story.
Vampires from fact & fiction were said to be roaming the award winning ‘Manormortis’ and it’s impressive ’24 haunted environments’ for this valentines spectacle.
Having visited Manormortis in the Halloween of 2013, we were eager to find out if and how the atmosFEAR team were going to spice things up.
After being greeted by a seemingly ‘seductive’ lady in vampire form, we were led to the entrance of L’aMortis where the impressive ‘Professor Van Helsing’ made his memorable entrance. We were warned of the dangerous creatures that inhabited Manormortis before being taken through to the initial scene.
Professor Helsing proceeded to explain that we’d be braving the attraction in couples with just a candle (in LED form) to help us navigate. This was an obvious, yet genius move to increase the intensity of the already impressive Manormortis! Safety in numbers was clearly not an option for the other terrified customers!
Being the first couple sent through the excellently thought out ‘fireplace’ entrance, we were slightly taken aback by the fact that the attraction was set in complete darkness!
With the clear instructions from Van Helsing to ‘NOT DROP THE CANDLE’ repeating in my mind, I proceeded to drop the candle on the first encounter we had with one of the many horrifying ‘vampires’.
Luckily, the actor allowed me to pick the candle back up without too much fuss.
As we continued around what seemed to be an ever lasting maze or terror, we were repeatedly shocked by the 10′s of actors inside.
With a number of mazes, it’s quite easy to predict where and when an actor will make an appearance to get the best fright out of you. With L’aMortis being almost pitch black, it was impossible to tell!
There are several scenes within Manormortis worthy of a notable mention, however, the one that always seems to stick in my mind is the wardrobe scene. On this occasion we were startled by the crazed female actor that was encouraging us to walk through the wardrobe towards her. This was a sheer diversion tactic to keep us occupied as we were unaware of the horrific vampire that made a lunge at us through the clothing hung along each side of the walkway! An excellently planned scare which really caught us out!
After what seemed like an eternity, we finally reached the end of L’aMortis! The suspense and sheer intensity of the experience left us pretty relieved to have completed it.
The brilliantly designed Manormortis seemed to be even longer with it now being cast in darkness. The only downside of which was that the finer details of the production could not be admired on the way through. We had a similar feeling after being unable to truly see the costumes, makeup and general aesthetics of the actors in much detail.
In general, L’aMortis was quite superb! The intuitive layout of Manormortis was really put to use with a large number of extreme scares! In plunging the set into darkness and sending customers through in groups of two, L’aMortis has arguably positioned itself as one of the most intense scare attractions in the UK!
We would have possibly liked to seen more emphasis on the narrative throughout the attraction but that didn’t impact on the overall experience too much.
Going forward, L’aMortis really has set a great precedent for future valentines attractions. With the industry growing year on year, I can only anticipate the demand for such events to grow and L’aMortis will take pride in being the first!
On Saturday we visited Thorpe Park for the famous ‘Fright Nights’ Halloween event. Having visited for the past 3-4 years we were under no illusion as to what to expect. Thorpe Park operate Fright Night’s (their busiest period) as a very profit focused event selling the spectacle with the use of licenses from large film […]
As one of our favourite UK scream parks, Screamfest (located just off the A38 in Burton-upon-Trent Staffordshire) offers a complete Halloween scare destination! With 5 main scare attractions, a fully covered courtyard with street entertainers and hot gourmet food of multiple varieties, we were excited to be invited to this year’s preview event on Thursday […]
Based at the National Forest Adventure Farm, Screamfest returns for 2016 with a refreshed lineup of scare attractions & entertainment making it one of the UK’s number one Scream Parks! This years attractions: NIGHT BRINGER Join us to try and answer the ultimate question… Is there a life after death? Demonology researchers and psychic mediums […]
Based at Barnsley’s the famous 17th century Worsbrough Mill, The Witching Hour is an interactive ghost walk experience open from Friday 28th Oct – Monday 31st Oct. Uncover chilling tales of unspeakable horror as spectres and ghouls try and claim your soul… £8.50 Single entry* £30 family ticket (admits four persons)* Not suitable for under 12’s Walks […]